The Colegio de Párvulos is located on Calle San Sebastián, in Old San Juan. It was built with the purpose of providing a primary education to the poor children of the islet.

The construction of the structure began in 1861, thanks to the initiative of the bishop of the diocese of San Juan, Fray Benigno Carrión de Málaga. The bishop acquired two old masonry houses, simple colonial in style, on San Sebastián street and donated them to be used as a school. The construction of the building, officially called Colegio de Párvulos del Corazón de María, was completed in November 1865. Its administration was in charge of the Daughters of Charity, a Catholic order founded in France in the 15th century.

The school was attended by boys and girls from poor families who could pay the monthly payment of one peso. During the school day, they received instruction, lunch, and recess time.